The breasts are made up of fat, connective tissue and thousands of tiny glands called lobules, which produce milk. When a woman has a baby, the milk is delivered to the nipple through tiny tubes called ducts.
Symptoms of breast cancer
Breast cancer can have a number of symptoms the most important are:
Most breast lumps aren't cancerous, but it's always best to have them checked by your doctor.
- a change in the size or shape of one or both breasts
- discharge from either of your nipples (which may be streaked with blood)
- a lump or swelling in either of your armpits
- dimpling on the skin of your breasts
- a rash on or around your nipple
- a change in the appearance of your nipple, such as becoming sunken into your breast
There are several different types of breast cancer, which can develop in different parts of the breast. Breast cancer is divided into non-invasive and invasive types.Non-invasive breast cancer
Non-invasive breast cancer is also known as cancer or carcinoma in situ. This cancer is found in the ducts of the breast and hasn't developed the ability to spread outside the breast.
This form of cancer rarely shows as a lump in the breast that can be felt, and is usually found on a mammogram. The most common type of non-invasive cancer is ductal carcinoma in situ.
Invasive breast cancer
Invasive cancer has the ability to spread outside the breast, although this doesn't necessarily mean it has spread.
The most common form of breast cancer is invasive ductal breast cancer, which develops in the cells that line the breast ducts. Invasive ductal breast cancer accounts for about 80% of all breast cancer.
Other types of breast cancer
Other less common types of breast cancer include invasive lobular breast cancer, which develops in the cells that line the milk-producing lobules.
It's possible for breast cancer to spread to other parts of the body, usually through the lymph nodes (small glands that filter bacteria from the body) or the bloodstream. If this happens, it's known as "secondary" or "metastatic" breast cancer.
Breast cancer screening
About one in eight women are diagnosed with breast cancer during their lifetime. There's a good chance of recovery if it's detected in its early stages.
Mammographic screening (where X-ray images of the breast are taken) is the best available method of detecting an early breast lesion. However, you should be aware that a mammogram might fail to detect some breast cancers. It might also increase your chances of having extra tests and interventions, including surgery.
Women with a higher-than-average risk of developing breast cancer may be offered screening and genetic testing for the condition.
As the risk of breast cancer increases with age, all women who are 50-70 years old are invited for breast cancer screening every three years.
Treating breast cancer
If cancer is detected at an early stage, it can be treated before it spreads to nearby parts of the body.
Breast cancer is treated using a combination of surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Surgery is usually the first type of treatment you'll have, followed by chemotherapy or radiotherapy or, in some cases, hormone or biological treatments.
The type of surgery and the treatment you have afterwards will depend on the type of breast cancer you have. Your doctor will discuss the best treatment plan with you.
In a small proportion of women, breast cancer is discovered after it's spread to other parts of the body (metastasis). Secondary cancer, also called advanced or metastatic cancer, isn't curable, so the aim of treatment is to achieve remission (symptom relief).
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Preventing breast cancer
As the causes of breast cancer aren't fully understood, it's not possible to know if it can be prevented altogether.
If you're at increased risk of developing the condition, some treatments are available to reduce the risk.
Studies have looked at the link between breast cancer and diet and, although there are no definite conclusions, there are benefits for women who maintain a healthy weight, exercise regularly and who have a low intake of saturated fat and alcohol.
Support Therapy for Patient :
Living with breast cancer being diagnosed with breast cancer can affect daily life.
Your family and friends can be a powerful support system.
You can communicate with other people in the same situation.
Find out as much as possible about your condition.
Don't try to do too much or overexert yourself.
Make time for yourself.
Fibroids are non-cancerous growths that develop in or around the womb (uterus).
The growths are made up of muscle and fibrous tissue and vary in size. They're sometimes known as uterine myomas or leiomyomas.
Many women are unaware they have fibroids because they don't have any symptoms. Women who do have symptoms (around one in three) may experience:
- heavy periods or painful periods
- tummy (abdominal) pain
- lower back pain
- a frequent need to urinate
- pain or discomfort during sex
Investigation : Usg,TVS
Why fibroids develop
The exact cause of fibroids is unknown. However, they're linked to the hormone oestrogen. Oestrogen is the female reproductive hormone produced by the ovaries (the female reproductive organs).
Fibroids usually develop during a woman's reproductive years (from around 16 to 50 years of age) when oestrogen levels are at their highest
The main types of fibroids are:
- intramural fibroids – the most common type of fibroid, which develop in the muscle wall of the womb
- subserosal fibroids – fibroids that develop outside the wall of the womb into the pelvis and can become very large
- submucosal fibroids – fibroids that develop in the muscle layer beneath the womb's inner lining and grow into the cavity of the womb